Narratives are personal stories that help enrich the reader’s understanding of a time period, person, place, or event. These are first-person views of history taken from personal recollections, memoirs, diaries, and oral histories.


Information included in this section is not fact checked by the Encyclopedia staff. The author of the Narrative is entirely responsible for its content.


I was the sports information director for St. Joseph's College when the Pumas played in the Aluminum Bowl game in 1956. My clearest memory of the game was sitting next to the Chicago Tribune sports writer; he was furious because he couldn't see the numbers on the jerseys because they were covered with mud. I couldn't read the numbers either, which made him even more furious. I managed to identify the St. Joe players as well as I could, but it was a mess.
I've always thought, though, that the game was a terrific defensive battle played between the 25-yard lines. The players fought their hearts out under virtually impossible conditions, and my recollection is—without benefit of statistics—that the punting was superb. These were two excellent teams, and, in a way, I thought a scoreless tie was (given the conditions) the most appropriate outcome.
I was twenty-five years old and a journalism graduate of Marquette University. St. Joseph's was my first full-time job—I was also a journalism instructor, a news director, and the editor of the monthly alumni publication—and the Aluminum Bowl was a real challenge. I did more than one all-nighter writing feature stories on the players for their hometown newspapers, among other tasks.
It was a shame that a violation of the civil rights of black high school students forced this significant new bowl game out of Arkansas. But I was able to make the most of it: the thesis for my master's degree at Marquette was a content analysis of the coverage by the two Little Rock newspapers of the civil rights story in 1957. (My final conclusion: The Arkansas Gazette was clearly the more professional and courageous of  the two.) 
I received a Master of Arts in journalism from Marquette in 1960.

Hugh P. Cowdin
Omaha, NE