Print Page     Email Page     Increase Font SizeDecrease Font SizeReset Font Size
Skip Navigation Links

Home / Browse / Trees

Trees

When European explorers first came to Arkansas in the sixteenth century, they found the vast majority of the state covered by some type of forest or woodland. In general, the upland areas of the state were covered by short-leaf pine/oak/hickory forests in areas underlain by acidic rocks (primarily sandstone and chert) and by oak/hickory forests in areas underlain by neutral to calcareous rocks (primarily limestone and dolomite). Lowland areas of eastern and southern Arkansas were covered primarily by bottomland hardwood forests, with bald-cypress/water-tupelo swamps in the wettest areas. The Gulf Coastal Plain of southern Arkansas was covered by a mix of forest types, with loblolly and/or short-leaf pine dominant in many areas. Within these general forest types were hundreds of species of woody plants and at least 148 species of trees.

In 2016, a total of 436 kinds of woody plants were known to occur in the wild in Arkansas, comprising 419 species plus another seventeen varieties and subspecies. Of these, 185 can be considered trees, 189 are best described as shrubs, and sixty-two are woody vines. In some cases, it is difficult to draw a hard line between these categories, and various reference works differ in their criteria for each. For the purposes of these this entry, however, each category is defined as follows:

Trees are defined as perennial, woody plants that are greater than five meters (sixteen feet) in height at maturity; they often have a single stem or relatively few stems. Shrubs are defined as perennial, often multi-stemmed woody or semi-woody plants usually less than five meters (sixteen feet) in height at maturity. This includes the bamboo members of the grass family (which may be taller), yuccas, the highbush members of the genus Rubus (blackberries and raspberries), prickly-pear cacti, and dwarf palmettos. Woody vines are defined as perennial, woody or semi-woody twining, climbing, or trailing plants with relatively long stems. In some cases, these may not appear especially “woody” (e.g., the trailing or dewberry members of the genus Rubus and some greenbriers in the genus Smilax), but their stems do not die back to the ground in winter.

Of the 185 trees in Arkansas, thirty-five (18.9 percent) are not native to the state and were introduced either accidentally or intentionally from elsewhere in the world since the time of European settlement. Two others are of uncertain native status. Eighteen (9.7 percent) have been identified as state species of conservation concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. These species are rare in the state and may be at risk from loss of habitat, disease, or other factors. All of these are designated in the table below.

Arkansas is home to one tree that is thought to be endemic to Arkansas. Maple-leaf oak (Quercus acerifolia) is a small tree known from just four mountaintops in the Ouachita Mountains and Arkansas Valley, where it is confined to high-elevation dry woodlands.

The largest genera of trees in Arkansas are the oaks (Quercus; thirty-one kinds considered trees, twenty-nine of which are native), the maples (Acer; ten kinds, nine native), the hickories (Carya; ten species, all native), the plums and cherries (Prunus; eight species, six native), the hawthorns (Crataegus; seven kinds considered trees, all native), the elms (Ulmus; seven species, six native), the hollies (Ilex; six species considered trees, four native), the pines (Pinus; six species, two native and one of uncertain native status), the magnolias (Magnolia; five species, four native), and the ashes (Fraxinus; five species, all native).

Two species of native pine trees are widely distributed in Arkansas and are of great economic importance. Short-leaf pine (Pinus echinata) is a dominant species in large areas of the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) but is also widespread in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) has been planted throughout the state but is considered native to the Gulf Coastal Plain, with a few rare pockets of natural occurrence in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and Ouachita Mountains. Several other species of pine have been occasionally planted in Arkansas but are not naturalized to any great extent.

Oaks are also of great importance, both ecologically and economically, in the forests of Arkansas. Thirty-two kinds of oaks are known to grow in the state, thirty-one of which are trees. The most common and widespread upland oak species in the state are white oak (Quercus alba), southern red oak (Q. falcata), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), chinquapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii), northern red oak (Q. rubra), post oak (Q. stellata), and black oak (Q. velutina). Common lowland oaks include overcup oak (Q. lyrata), swamp chestnut oak or cow oak (Q. michauxii), water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), willow oak (Q. phellos), and Nuttall’s oak (Q. texana). Hickories are also common in most of Arkansas’s natural forests, with mockernut hickory (Carya alba), pignut hickory (Carya glabra), and black hickory (Carya texana) common on drier sites, while bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis), kingnut or shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), and shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) are more common in moist sites. Water hickory or bitter-pecan (Carya aquatica) occurs in the wettest bottomland hardwood forests.

Some native tree species are colonizers of human-disturbed sites such as abandoned pastures and crop fields, cutover forests, and roadsides. Common examples of these pioneer tree species in Arkansas include persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), honey locust (Gleditisa triacanthos), eastern red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana), sweet-gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), Osage-orange or bois d’arc (Maclura pomifera), black cherry (Prunus serotina), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), sassafras (Sassifras albidum), and winged elm (Ulmus alata). Other species are typically found along major streams and rivers where natural disturbance from flooding favors species that reproduce abundantly and grow quickly. Examples of such riverine species include box elder (Acer negundo), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), river birch (Betula nigra), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black willow (Salix nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana). Swamps that are flooded for long durations are often dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) and/or bald-cypress (Taxodium distichum), both of which can withstand nearly permanent water once they are established.

Upland forests, while often dominated by pine, oak, and hickory, are also occupied by many other tree species. Other common species include red maple (Acer rubrum), red buckeye (Aesculus pavia), serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea), devil’s walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), redbud (Cercis canadensis), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), white ash (Fraxinus americana), black-gum (Nyssa sylvatica), hop-hornbeam or ironwood (Ostrya virginiana), Mexican plum (Prunus mexicana), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum). In more moist or nutrient-rich sites, other hardwood species may be found, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum), Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), beech (Fagus grandifolia), deciduous holly (Ilex decidua), American holly (Ilex opaca), black walnut (Juglans nigra), and basswood (Tilia americana).

Not all of the tree species found in Arkansas are native to the state. Several of these non-native trees are considered by botanists and ecologists to be invasive in Arkansas’s natural communities, capable of displacing native vegetation and altering habitat for native wildlife. Examples of non-native invasive trees in Arkansas include tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), silk-tree (Albizia julibrissin), Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta), Chinaberry (Melia azedarach), white mulberry (Morus alba), empress-tree or princess-tree (Paulownia tomentosa), white poplar (Populus alba), perfumed cherry (Prunus mahaleb), callery pear (Pyrus calleryana), and Chinese tallow-tree (Triadica sebifera).

Diverse forests with the full range of tree species typical of pre-settlement Arkansas have declined in the last century as parts of the state were largely cleared for agriculture, converted to single-species (primarily loblolly pine) plantation forestry, or developed. Some forest and woodland types are still widespread and abundant, but others have declined enough to be of conservation concern. Forest types that have experienced the greatest decline are those that are restricted to geographic regions where their geology, soils, climate, topography, and location have made them highly profitable for conversion to other uses. Examples of these forest types include the bottomland forests of eastern Arkansas, the oak barrens and glades of the igneous rock regions of Garland, Hot Spring, Saline, and Pulaski counties, the oak savannas of northwestern Arkansas and the Grand Prairie region, and, more recently, the pine flatwoods of the Gulf Coastal Plain.

Several Arkansas tree species have been dramatically reduced from their historical levels due to the introduction of diseases or pests from other regions of the world. The most well-known example is the decline of Arkansas’s two native chinquapins or chestnuts (Castanea pumila var. pumila and C. pumila var. ozarkensis) as a result of the chestnut blight, a fungal pathogen accidentally introduced from Asia in the early twentieth century. Other examples include the dramatic decline of butternut, or white walnut (Juglans cinerea), in recent decades from butternut canker disease, as well as the more modest decline of American elm (Ulmus americana) due to Dutch elm disease. Many ecologists and foresters are currently concerned about the recent detection in Arkansas of dogwood anthracnose (a fungal disease causing a decline in flowering dogwoods in the eastern United States) and the detection in 2014 in southern Arkansas of the emerald ash borer (an introduced insect that is killing all species of ash trees in the upper Midwest).

The following table presents an annotated list of the 185 trees known to occur in the wild in Arkansas as recorded by Gentry et al. (2013) and amended by the staff of the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission with data gathered since 2013.

Annotations are as follows: 

+ = state conservation concern (rare species)

* = non-native to Arkansas

*? = questionable or uncertain native status

Scientific Name

Common Name(s)

Family

Family Common Name

Acer ginnala *

Amur maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer negundo var. negundo

box elder

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer negundo var. texanum

box elder

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer rubrum var. drummondii

swamp red maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer rubrum var. rubrum

red maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer saccharinum

silver maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer saccharum var. floridanum

southern sugar maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer saccharum var. leucoderme +

chalk maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer saccharum var. nigrum +

black maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Acer saccharum var. saccharum

sugar maple

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Aesculus glabra var. arguta

Texas buckeye

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Aesculus glabra var. glabra

Ohio buckeye

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Aesculus pavia var. pavia

red buckeye

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Ailanthus altissima *

tree-of-heaven, stink-tree

SIMAROUBACEAE

Quassia Family

Albizia julibrissin *

mimosa, silk-tree

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Amelanchier arborea

downy service-berry, shadbush

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Aralia spinosa

devil’s-walkingstick, Hercules’-club

ARALIACEAE

Ginseng Family

Asimina triloba

pawpaw

ANNONACEAE

Custard-apple Family

Betula nigra

river birch

BETULACEAE

Birch Family

Broussonetia papyrifera *

paper-mulberry

MORACEAE

Mulberry Family

Carpinus caroliniana subsp. caroliniana

musclewood, ironwood, American hornbeam

BETULACEAE

Birch Family

Carpinus caroliniana subsp. virginiana

musclewood, ironwood, American hornbeam

BETULACEAE

Birch Family

Carya alba

mockernut hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya aquatica

water hickory, bitter-pecan

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya cordiformis

bitternut hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya glabra

pignut hickory, red hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya illinoinensis

pecan

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya laciniosa

shellbark hickory, kingnut hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya myristiciformis

nutmeg hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya ovata var. ovata

shagbark hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya pallida +

pale hickory, sand hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Carya texana

black hickory

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Castanea mollissima *

Chinese chestnut

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis

Ozark chinquapin

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Castanea pumila var. pumila

Allegheny chinquapin

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Catalpa bignonioides *

southern catalpa

BIGNONIACEAE

Trumpet-creeper Family

Catalpa speciosa

northern catalpa

BIGNONIACEAE

Trumpet-creeper Family

Celtis laevigata

sugarberry

CANNABACEAE

Hemp Family

Celtis occidentalis

hackberry

CANNABACEAE

Hemp Family

Celtis tenuifolia

dwarf hackberry

CANNABACEAE

Hemp Family

Cercis canadensis var. canadensis

eastern redbud

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Cladrastis kentukea

yellow-wood

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Cornus alternifolia

alternate-leaf dogwood

CORNACEAE

Dogwood Family

Cornus florida

flowering dogwood

CORNACEAE

Dogwood Family

Cotinus obovatus

American smoke-tree

ANACARDIACEAE

Sumac Family

Crataegus brachyacantha +

blueberry hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus opaca

mayhaw, apple haw

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus phaenopyrum +

Washington hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus reverchonii var. palmeri +

Palmer’s hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus reverchonii var. reverchonii +

Reverchon’s hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus spathulata

pasture hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Crataegus viridis

green hawthorn

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Diospyros virginiana

persimmon

EBENACEAE

Ebony Family

Fagus grandifolia

beech

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Firmiana simplex *

Chinese parasol-tree

MALVACEAE

Mallow Family

Forestiera acuminata

swamp-privet

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Frangula caroliniana

Carolina buckthorn, Indian-cherry

RHAMNACEAE

Buckthorn Family

Fraxinus americana

white ash

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Fraxinus caroliniana

Carolina ash, water ash

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

green ash

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Fraxinus profunda

pumpkin ash

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Fraxinus quadrangulata

blue ash

OLEACEAE

Olive Family

Gleditsia aquatica

water locust

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Gleditsia triacanthos

honey locust

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Gymnocladus dioicus

Kentucky coffee-tree

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Halesia carolina

silverbell, Carolina silverbell

STYRACACEAE

Storax Family

Halesia diptera +

two-wing silverbell, snowdrop

STYRACACEAE

Storax Family

Hibiscus syriacus *

rose-of-Sharon

MALVACEAE

Mallow Family

Ilex aquifolium *

English holly

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Ilex cornuta *

Chinese holly

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Ilex decidua

deciduous holly, possumhaw

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Ilex longipes +

Georgia holly

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Ilex opaca var. opaca

American holly

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Ilex vomitoria

yaupon

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Holly Family

Juglans cinerea +

butternut, white walnut

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Juglans nigra

black walnut

JUGLANDACEAE

Walnut Family

Juniperus ashei

Ashe’s juniper, rock-cedar, Ozark white-cedar

CUPRESSACEAE

Cypress Family

Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana

eastern red-cedar, cedar

CUPRESSACEAE

Cypress Family

Koelreuteria bipinnata *

Chinese flame-tree, golden-rain-tree

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Koelreuteria paniculata *

golden-rain-tree

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Lagerstroemia indica *

crape-myrtle

LYTHRACEAE

Loosestrife Family

Liquidambar styraciflua

sweet-gum

ALTINGIACEAE

Sweet-gum Family

Liriodendron tulipifera

tulip-tree, tulip-poplar, yellow-poplar

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Maclura pomifera

Osage-orange, hedge-apple, bois d’arc

MORACEAE

Mulberry Family

Magnolia acuminata

cucumber magnolia, cucumber-tree

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Magnolia grandiflora *

southern magnolia

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Magnolia macrophylla +

big-leaf magnolia

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Magnolia tripetala

umbrella magnolia, umbrella-tree

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Magnolia virginiana

sweet-bay magnolia

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia Family

Malus angustifolia

southern crabapple, wild crabapple

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Malus ioensis

prairie crabapple

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Malus pumila *

apple

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Manihot grahamii *

Graham’s cassava

EUPHORBIACEAE

Spurge Family

Melia azedarach *

Chinaberry

MELIACEAE

Mahogany Family

Morus alba *

white mulberry

MORACEAE

Mulberry Family

Morus rubra

red mulberry

MORACEAE

Mulberry Family

Nyssa aquatica

tupelo, water tupelo

NYSSACEAE

Tupelo Family

Nyssa biflora

swamp black-gum, swamp tupelo

NYSSACEAE

Tupelo Family

Nyssa sylvatica

black-gum

NYSSACEAE

Tupelo Family

Ostrya virginiana

hop-hornbeam, ironwood

BETULACEAE

Birch Family

Paulownia tomentosa *

princess-tree, empress-tree

PAULOWNIACEAE

Princess-tree Family

Persea borbonia +

red bay

LAURACEAE

Laurel Family

Pinus echinata

short-leaf pine, yellow pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Pinus glabra *?

spruce pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Pinus palustris *

long-leaf pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Pinus strobus *

eastern white pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Pinus taeda

loblolly pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Pinus virginiana *

Virginia pine

PINACEAE

Pine Family

Planera aquatica

water-elm, planer-tree

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Platanus occidentalis

sycamore, plane-tree

PLATANACEAE

Sycamore Family

Populus alba *

white poplar, silver poplar

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Populus deltoides subsp. deltoides

eastern cottonwood

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Populus heterophylla

swamp cottonwood

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa *

mesquite, honey mesquite

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Prunus caroliniana

Carolina laurel cherry

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus hortulana

hortulan plum

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus mahaleb *

perfumed cherry

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus mexicana

bigtree plum, Mexican plum

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus munsoniana

wild goose plum

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus persica *

peach

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus serotina

black cherry

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Prunus umbellata

sloe plum, flatwoods plum, hog plum

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Pyrus calleryana *

Callery pear, Bradford pear

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Pyrus communis *

pear

ROSACEAE

Rose Family

Quercus acerifolia +

maple-leaf oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus acutissima *

sawtooth oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus alba

white oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus arkansana

Arkansas oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus austrina +

bluff oak, bastard white oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus coccinea

scarlet oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus falcata

southern red oak, Spanish oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus hemisphaerica +

Darlington’s oak, laurel oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus imbricaria

shingle oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus incana

bluejack oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus laurifolia

laurel oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus lyrata

overcup oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus macrocarpa

bur oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus margaretta

sand post oak, Margaretta’s oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus marilandica var. ashei

blackjack oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus marilandica var. marilandica

blackjack oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus michauxii

swamp chestnut oak, basket oak, cow oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus muehlenbergii

chinquapin oak, chestnut oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus nigra

water oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus pagoda

cherrybark oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus palustris

pin oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus phellos

willow oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus rubra

northern red oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus shumardii var. schneckii

Schneck’s oak, spotted oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus shumardii var. shumardii

Shumard’s oak, spotted oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus similis

delta post oak, swamp post oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus sinuata +

Durand’s white oak, bastard oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus stellata

post oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus texana

Nuttall’s oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus velutina

black oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Quercus virginiana *

live oak

FAGACEAE

Beech Family

Rhamnus lanceolata

lance-leaf buckthorn

RHAMNACEAE

Buckthorn Family

Robinia pseudoacacia

black locust

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Robinia viscosa var. hartwigii *?

clammy locust

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Salix alba *

white willow

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Salix babylonica *

weeping willow

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Salix interior

sandbar willow

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Salix nigra

black willow

SALICACEAE

Willow Family

Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii

soapberry

SAPINDACEAE

Soapberry Family

Sassafras albidum

sassafras

LAURACEAE

Laurel Family

Sideroxylon lanuginosum

gum bumelia, chittamwood

SAPOTACEAE

Sapodilla Family

Sideroxylon lycioides

buckthorn bumelia

SAPOTACEAE

Sapodilla Family

Styphnolobium affine +

Eve’s necklace, Texas sophora

FABACEAE

Bean Family

Symplocos tinctoria

sweetleaf, horsesugar

SYMPLOCACEAE

Sweetleaf Family

Taxodium distichum var. distichum

bald-cypress, cypress

CUPRESSACEAE

Cypress Family

Tilia americana var. americana

American basswood, linden

MALVACEAE

Mallow Family

Tilia americana var. caroliniana

basswood, linden

MALVACEAE

Mallow Family

Tilia americana var. heterophylla

white basswood, linden

MALVACEAE

Mallow Family

Triadica sebifera *

Chinese tallow-tree, popcorn-tree

EUPHORBIACEAE

Spurge Family

Ulmus alata

winged elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus americana

American elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus crassifolia

cedar elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus pumila *

Siberian elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus rubra

slippery elm, red elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus serotina

September elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Ulmus thomasii +

rock elm

ULMACEAE

Elm Family

Vernicia fordii *

tung-oil-tree

EUPHORBIACEAE

Spurge Family

Viburnum prunifolium

blackhaw

ADOXACEAE

Arrow-wood Family

Viburnum rufidulum

rusty blackhaw, southern blackhaw

ADOXACEAE

Arrow-wood Family

Zanthoxylum americanum

prickly-ash, toothache-tree

RUTACEAE

Rue Family

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

toothache-tree, Hercules’-club, prickly-ash

RUTACEAE

Rue Family

For additional information:
Gentry, Johnnie L., George P. Johnson, Brent T. Baker, C. Theo Witsell, and Jennifer D. Ogle., eds. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Herbarium, 2013.

Hunter, Carl G. Trees, Shrubs, and Vines of Arkansas. Little Rock: Ozark Society Foundation, 2004.

Smith, Edwin B. Keys to the Flora of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Smith, Kenneth L. Sawmill: The Story of the Cutting of the Last Great Virgin Forest East of the Rockies. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1986.

Tucker, Gary Edward. “A Guide to the Woody Flora of Arkansas.” PhD diss., University of Arkansas, 1976.

Theo Witsell
Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission

 

Related Butler Center Lesson Plans:
Boom and Bust (Grades 5-8); Into the Wilderness (Grades 5-8)

Last Updated 7/20/2016

About this Entry: Contact the Encyclopedia / Submit a Comment / Submit a Narrative


©2016 The Central Arkansas Library System - All rights reserved - Web Services by Aristotle Web Design.