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The term “tourism,” meaning “traveling as a recreation,” was not common in the nineteenth century, nor was the activity it denoted. By the year 2010, however, an estimated 22 million visitors to Arkansas spent approximately $5.4 billion annually in the state. Tourists come to Arkansas for its many sports and recreational opportunities, as well as its natural beauty.
Arkansas tourism may have taken root even in the eighteenth century. The decorated buffalo robes the Quapaw made that ended up in the Musée de l’Homme in Paris, France, were, in Judge Morris S. Arnold’s judgment, tourist souvenirs. Arkansas—which, because of John Law’s Mississippi Bubble scheme, had international recognition—attracted daring tourists. While Thomas Nuttall and George William Featherstonhaugh came on business, Washington Irving passed through on his way back from his Western tour. Tourist Albert Pike chose to stay, and Friedrich Gerstäcker wrote a book of hunting stories and returned after the Civil War.
In the early nineteenth century, Hot Springs (Garland County) was one of several spa towns offering medicinal tourism. Competing towns after the Civil War included Ravenden Springs (Randolph County) and Eureka Springs (Carroll County). Arkansas tourism (and promotion) was formally launched in 1876 with the publication of A History of the North-western Editorial Excursion to Arkansas: A Short Sketch of its Inception and the Routes Traveled over, the Manner in which the Editors were Received, the Resolutions Adopted and Speeches Made at Various Points, the View of the Editorial Visitors to Arkansas as Expressed in their Papers (more commonly referred to as New Arkansas Travelers). Successful tourism depended on getting access to the chosen site. From the 1870s to about 1920, most tourists arrived by train. Eureka Springs’ growth was almost entirely due to the construction of a short line that connected to the Frisco Railroad’s main line at Seligman, Missouri. The transformation of this line into the Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad (the best known of this troubled line’s many names) then spurred tourism in Gilbert (Searcy County), Heber Springs (Cleburne County), and other stops. William Hope “Coin” Harvey’s resort at Monte Ne (Benton County) was nationally famous, and it, too, had its own rail line. Tourists headed for Ravenden Springs got off the Frisco at Ravenden (Lawrence County). Most resorts typically collected the tourists in wagons or hacks and transported them to the hotel or camp. Samuel Alexander Leath at Eureka Springs used a tallyho pulled by six white horses.
A new era of tourism began with the arrival of the automobile. In 1913, William Hope “Coin” Harvey helped launch the Ozark Trails Association that eventually marked more than 6,000 miles of roads, thus making that part of the state accessible to tourists. In consequence, a new industry arose—tourist courts. Erected often on the outskirts of town, the courts featured individual bungalows, often in the creek stone and cement style popular at the time. Sometimes the site itself had facilities. Particularly notable are the cabins at the cave at Cave City (Sharp County). Sometimes the owners added a restaurant as well. As pavement spread, more vehicles came bearing people seeking recreation. Bella Vista, an early Ozark retreat built around an artificial lake and a nightclub in a cave, gave Benton County a taste of the high life. When interest in water for medicinal purposes declined, Eureka Springs lured tourists by celebrating the traditional culture of the Ozarks, thus inaugurating the Ozark Revival. Otto Earnest Rayburn was ambiguously cast both as the region’s principal promoter and one who wished to conserve the region’s traditional values. Rayburn and folklorist Vance Randolph both wrote books extolling the culture of a pre-modern age. The Ozark Revival had ramifications in the Ouachitas. The radio shows and motion pictures of two Mena (Polk County) businessmen, Chester Lauck and Norris Goff, better known as Lum ‘n’ Abner, celebrated homespun ways in a mythical town called Pine Ridge. Hoping to capitalize on their fame, the town of Waters (Montgomery County) changed its name in 1936 to Pine Ridge. Another tourist site was the boyhood home of film star Bob Burns in Van Buren.
Celebrating traditional ways did not sit well with a portion of the state’s elite. They insisted Arkansas was and always had been thoroughly modern. Avantus “Bud” Green’s detailing of these issues in The Arkansas Challenge: A Bragging, Boasting, Swaggering, Toasting Handbook on the Wonder State (1946) remains the standard treatment.
How to lure tourists into Arkansas and how to get them to spend money became a state issue in the 1920s. The Ozark Playground Association, organized in 1919, pushed the supposed pristine purity of both nature and inhabitants under the slogan, “The Land of a Million Smiles.” Former governor Charles H. Brough pushed persistently and successfully for the adoption in 1923 of “The Wonder State” as Arkansas’s official nickname. The more economically driven “Land of Opportunity” followed after World War II, but “The Natural State” took the state back to a tourist orientation. One state agency, State Parks and Tourism, created in 1925, was devoted to pursuing these elusive dollars, each one of which was calculated to have a “multiplier” effect on the local economy. Arkansas benefited from the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work in the Ozarks and Ouachitas. Roads and bridges helped open the region to tourists. In 1937, when the state legislature created the Arkansas Publicity Advisory Commission in order to promote more tourism, it expected not transient visitors but permanent settlers who would bring wealth and prestige to the state.
Another aspect of the tourist campaign was to keep Arkansans within the state to spend their tourist dollars. “See Arkansas First” was the slogan, and judging anecdotally, few Arkansans have seen much of their home state. It is the hope of many that programs on educational television and the teaching of Arkansas history in schools may lead to increased interest.
In general, scenic and recreational parks came first (Mt. Magazine, Petit Jean), followed later by historical and cultural ones after 1970. One early cultural example is the Folk Center at Mountain View (Stone County). The state government of Arkansas entered the picture after Mountain View received federal funds to house its folk festival, which had started in 1963. In 1973, the state took over, acquiring the land and erecting buildings for the Ozark Folk Center, which is now designated as a state park.
By 2011, Arkansas had fifty-two state parks and many museums invariably directed at the different aspects of tourism. Parks and lodges near the state’s lakes cater to water sports or fishing. Historic Washington State Park displays much of the southwestern part of the state’s antebellum history. The first preservation project, originally called the Arkansas Territorial Restoration (now the Historic Arkansas Museum), was modeled on Colonial Williamsburg and claimed erroneously to have saved the first Little Rock home of the Arkansas Gazette. In time, the museum collected a broad range of Arkansas paintings, prints, and cultural artifacts. Near Scott (Pulaski and Lonoke Counties), the state bought the misnamed Toltec Mounds and turned that Plum Bayou site into one of two parks related to Arkansas’s prehistory; the other is at Parkin (Cross County), a small Delta community located on the site of Casqui, a town Hernando de Soto is believed to have visited. At Scott is the state’s agricultural museum; what had been the Oil and Brine Museum at Smackover became dedicated to natural resources. Finally, Arkansas commemorates its Civil War battles with a major park at Prairie Grove and smaller ones elsewhere.
The federal government’s contributions consist of the Arkansas Post National Memorial, although its remote site precludes much tourist traffic. The major Civil War battlefield site, Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern) National Military Park, owes its origins to the work of local leaders. Changing national attitudes on integration led eventually in 1998 to the creation of the Central High School Historical Site. Downtown Hot Springs is a national park, and because the site had been owned by the federal government from the time of the Louisiana Purchase, it is America’s oldest national park. Arkansas achieved another first when the Buffalo River was accorded national status by President Richard Nixon. The Fort Smith National Historic Site features Judge Isaac Parker’s notorious court as well as other surviving buildings at the fort site.
The greatest tourism draw is also the newest: the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock. Built along the Arkansas River just south of Interstate 30 in an award-winning style (which some say is reminiscent of the ubiquitous double-wide manufactured home), it opened on November 18, 2004, and drew almost 500,000 visitors the first year. Other Little Rock attractions doubtless benefited from the ripple effect, but the greatest impact could be found in the adjacent River Market area, which spreads along Markham Street and includes a new home for the Central Arkansas Library. Trolleys, last seen in 1948, returned to the downtown area and linked to North Little Rock as well. The Clinton Presidential Library proves to be a draw for tour buses, many of which crisscross the state in heading for such popular destinations as Branson, Missouri, for its shows or Tunica, Mississippi, for its casinos. Only Eureka Springs’ Passion Play had previously been a popular destination.
Theme parks were another late-twentieth-century addition. Magic Springs at Hot Springs and Gerald K. Smith’s Sacred Projects at Eureka Springs are the most popular. “Coin” Harvey’s Monte Ne ended up under the waters of Beaver Lake, and an Ozark hillbilly park called Dogpatch USA, located between Harrison (Boone County) and Jasper (Newton County), opened in 1968 but closed a few years later.
Hunting has also played a major role in Arkansas tourism. It was tourist-hunters and fishermen who demanded game laws to stop the promiscuous destruction being carried out by the local residents in the early twentieth century. Tourist hunters are most drawn to eastern Arkansas. Stuttgart (Arkansas County) is famous for its duck hunts. Beer baron August Busch of St. Louis, Missouri, was a frequent visitor.
Nature-oriented tourism included two prominent hiking trails, one through the Ouachitas and the other through the Ozarks. When adequate water levels permit, the Buffalo National River is filled with canoes. The Mulberry, Spring, and Cossatot rivers are also popular.
One further challenge in the twentieth century was the legalization of gambling. Arkansas had only two legal forms of gambling, dog races at West Memphis (Crittenden County) and horses at Hot Springs. As casinos arose in Missouri and Mississippi, Arkansans hastened to take their dollars out of state. However, a law passed in 2005 allowed voters in West Memphis and Hot Springs to decide upon the inclusion of electronic “games of skill” on the grounds of racing facilities; the subsequent elections pitted moneyed pro-gambling interests against conservative churches, with the former winning the day. In 2008 Arkansas voters approved a state lottery, which supporters promised would help to fund scholarships to state colleges and universities.
Finally, almost every community supports a fair or celebration of some sort. From Toad Suck Daze in Conway (Faulkner County)—where toads race—to the turkey drop in Yellville (Marion County)—where live turkeys were once thrown out of airplanes—Arkansas is awash with events. One once-prominent event was the Picklefest at Atkins (Pope County) that featured pickle juice drinking contests. Sponsors were left in a bind when the company closed and moved to Mexico. Another festival beset with difficulties was the King Biscuit Blues Festival in Helena. Besides being faced with conflicts between white and black organizers, the festival lost the right to use the historic King Biscuit name long associated with the event.
Although tourism is dependent upon national economic conditions, state environmental problems have also impacted its potential, with some lakes and rivers losing their allure on account of pollution, even as the rediscovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker has demonstrated yet again the draw of natural areas. But though Arkansas now bears the moniker of “The Natural State,” numerous sites, festivals, and other attractions help define the image of the state.
Impact of Travel on Arkansas Counties—2010 Preliminary (From the 2011 annual report of the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism)
TOTAL TRAVEL-GENERATED EXPENDITURES (DOLLARS)
* Data is preliminary and will be revised when new U.S. Travel Association benchmark is received.NOTE: Some details may not add due to rounding.
For additional information:Arkansas Game and Fish Commission. Arkansas Wildlife. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.
Arkansas Tourism Official Site. http://www.arkansas.com/ (accessed January 28, 2008).
Keefe, James F., and Lynn Morrow, eds. The White River Chronicles of S. C. Turnbo: Man and the Wildlife on the Ozarks Frontier. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.
Myers-Phinney. “Arcadia in the Ozarks: The Beginnings of Tourism in Missouri’s White River Country.”OzarksWatch 3 (Spring 1990): 6–11.
Rose, F. P. “The Story of Sam A. Leath.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 14: 120–127.
Shipley, Ellen C. “The Pleasures of Prosperity, Bella Vista, Arkansas, 1917–1929.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 37 (Summer 1978): 99–129.
Simpson, Ethel C. “Otto Earnest Rayburn, An Early Promoter of the Ozarks.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 58 (Summer 1999): 160–179.
Spencer, Jim, “The Good Old Days,” Arkansas Times, December 1987, 44–47, 54.
Steward, Dana F. A Rough Sort of Beauty; Reflections on the Natural Heritage of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002.
Michael B. DouganJonesboro, Arkansas
Last Updated 2/29/2012
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